Reptiles and amphibians
(class Amphibia, from Amphi- meaning "on both sides" and -bios meaning "life"), such as frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians, are ectothermic (or cold-blooded) animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form, either to an adult air-breathing form, or to a paedomorph that retains some juvenile characteristics. Proteidae (mudpuppies and waterdogs) are good examples of paedomorphic species. Though amphibians typically have four limbs, the caecilians are notable for being limbless. Unlike other land vertebrates (amniotes), most amphibians lay eggs in water. Amphibians are superficially similar to reptiles.

Amphibians are ecological indicators, and in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations around the globe. Many species are now threatened or extinct.

Amphibians evolved in the Devonian Period and were top predators in the Carboniferous and Permian Periods, but many lineages were wiped out during the Permian–Triassic extinction. One group, the metoposaurs, remained important predators during the Triassic, but as the world became drier during the Early Jurassic they died out, leaving a handful of relict temnospondyls like Koolasuchus and the modern orders of Lissamphibia. Write the text of your article here!


Reptiles are animals in the (Linnaean) class Reptilia characterized by breathing air, a "cold-blooded" (poikilothermic) metabolism, laying tough-shelled amniotic eggs (or retaining the same membrane system in species with live birth), and skin with scales or scutes. They are tetrapods (either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors) and lay amniotic eggs, in which the embryo is surrounded by a membrane called the amnion. Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica.

The majority of reptile species are oviparous (egg-laying), although certain species of squamates are capable of giving live birth. This is achieved by either ovoviviparity (egg retention) or viviparity (birth of offspring without the development of calcified eggs). Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, that grows to only 1.6 cm (0.6 in) to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, that may reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg. The science dealing with reptiles is called herpetology.